Project Factsheet
Tools for » HIV/AIDS
Project ID 00079850 Description HIV/AIDS
Fund
Tanzania One UN Fund
Start Date *: 14 Sep 2011
Theme
C2: Quality of Life
Project status Operationally Closed
Country Tanzania Participating Organization   Multiple
About

HIV and AIDS

Tanzania's progress on MDG 6 – Combating HIV and AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases is remarkable, but with an emphasis on vertical interventions in HIV and malaria. Malaria transmission, which plays a large part in child mortality, reduced significantly. Malaria prevalence in Zanzibar dropped from 46.2 percent in 2002 to 0.8 percent in 2006 due to improved malaria control as well as wide (and free) distribution and use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) - successes increasingly difficult to sustain in the long term. Malaria continues to be a severe challenge on the Mainland where it was 18.1 percent in 2007/8.

 HIV prevalence declined from 7 percent in 2004 to 5.7 percent in 2008 in Mainland Tanzania and stabilised around 0.6 percent in Zanzibar. Disparities in prevalence exist amongst different socio economic groups. Whilst amongst young people aged 15 to 24 (20 percent of the total population) it declined, infection among girls of the same age is disproportionately high (4 percent compared to 1 percent for young men). Only 39 percent of young women and 42 percent of young men have comprehensive knowledge of HIV. Low and inconsistent condom use, low risk perception, high-risk behaviour including multiple concurrent sexual partners and agedisparate sexual relationships are factors fuelling transmission.

Though Zanzibar has low levels of the epidemic, HIV prevalence is high amongst the Key Populations - injection drug users (15 percent), sex workers (10 percent) and men who have sex with men (12 percent) - who face stigma, discrimination, and limited access to services and information (comparable data on prevalence rates amongst Mainland Key Populations is unavailable). HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Services have been significantly scaled-up nationally. More than 70 percent of centres providing antenatal care services now offer Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) services. Nevertheless significant service gaps remain. Only 68 percent of HIV-positive pregnant women and 50 percent of HIV exposed infants receive Anti- Retroviral Prophylaxis (ARVs) to prevent mother to child transmission. Integration of HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services is limited. People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) still lack many services and participate only indirectly in prevention and policy advocacy efforts.

Strategies to mitigate the social and economic impact of HIV and AIDS have expanded although much still needs to be done. Cumulatively, the epidemic has orphaned over 1.3 million Tanzanian children since 1985: many receive assistance under the interventions of the National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children (NCPA). Of the total HIV-positive population in Tanzania, 840,000 (56 percent) are women (15 to 49 years).

Three key issues need addressing to improve sustainability and equity of the national response to HIV and AIDS. Human rights and gender equality needs to be mainstreamed in all HIV and AIDS services and programmes since socio-economic inequalities, gender discrimination, discriminatory and demeaning cultural/societal norms and widespread persistence of negative stereotypes continue to hinder access to care and treatment, particularly amongst Key Populations. Technical support and capacity development for the national effort in human rights mainstreaming is urgently needed. There is also need to address the remaining obstacles and barriers to full access to comprehensive quality HIV prevention   and AIDS management services: LGAs in many parts of the country, in particular rural areas, continue to struggle in budgeting and planning for such services.Whilst disparities and differences in HIV and AIDS transmission, infection, and successful treatment are highly correlated with local availability of quality, affordable and comprehensive HIV and AIDS services, an effective national response requires greater focus on prevention and mitigation policies and strategies. Capacities of MDAs, LGAs and the national AIDS councils need development and enhancement in support of expansion and rollout of these national policies.

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Contacts

If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Tanzania or the lead agency for the programme. The MPTF Office Portfolio Manager (or Country Director with Delegation of Authority) for this programme:

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