Project Factsheet
Tools for » CHF Som WASH/2011-1/OCHA-NGOs
Project ID 00078154 Description CHF Som WASH/2011-1/OCHA-NGOs
Somalia Humanitarian Fund
Start Date *: 4 Apr 2011
Water and Sanitation
Project status Operationally Closed
Country Somalia Participating Organization   NGO/OCHA - NGO implementation/OCHA

CHF-DMA-0489-071 “Emergency WASH interventions to most vulnerable IDPs and Disaster-Affected rural populations in Galgaduud, Mudug and Gedo regions” - 794,017$

This action targets regions currently facing acute drought linked to the prevailing La Niña, with 55%, 49% and 23% of population in Galgadud, Mudug and Gedo respectively in humanitarian crisis (FSNAU). Failure of the 2010/11 deyr rains has caused dramatic increase in prices of water and cereals. The situation is exacerbated by the protracted political and resources related conflicts, and related population displacements. Seasonal water sources have dried, exerting stress on strategic water sources. Water supply from the strategic sources is insufficient, and breakdowns and declining yields have been reported. Water scarcity has led to increased water cost particularly affecting the most vulnerable population – IDPs and poor rural families. This action will sustainably mitigate impacts of current situation by increasing access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation services for the most vulnerable households.

There is urgent need to improve access to safe water through development or rehabilitation of appropriate strategic water sources. Sanitary improvements and hygiene promotion are essential to address the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and malnutrition.

The emergency response includes providing water vouchers to most vulnerable households, providing cash for work opportunities, rehabilitation of water sources to improve water access, construction of latrines, hygiene promotion and distribution of related materials (jerry cans, water filters and soap) and capacity building of communities and local authorities. This action fits within the framework of COOPI programming in the three regions and fills gaps that are not being addressed either by the ongoing COOPI’s projects or other actors in the target locations. It also in some locations serves as an exit strategy for the on-going emergency responses.                                                                                                           


CHF-DMA-0489-076 “Emergency WASH response to most vulnerable IDPs and host communities in humanitarian crisis in Bossaso and Gaalkacyo districts”- 610,402$

The IDP population in Puntland has increased from 100,000 to 139,000 between December 2010 and February 2011 (UNHCR Feb 2011) with 53% female and 47% male. High incidence of diarrhoeal diseases amongst IDPs and destitute households as reported at 15.4% and 39.4% in Galkayo and Bossaso respectively affects particularly the children U5, and is attributed partly to poor sanitation and hygiene, and use of contaminated water supplies (FSNAU Dec 2010). Lack of income earning opportunities has rendered many IDP families dependant on external assistance and resulting to negative coping mechanisms such as reducing on the number of meals per day (UNHCR Dec 2010). Failure of  Deyr ‘10/’11 rains has caused a rise of prices of local cereal affecting mainly the IDPs and poor urban households who rely largely on market purchase for food. The target population is in a critical situation requiring immediate intervention to save lives, and prevent further slide into destitution.

This action aims to increase sustainable access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation services along with creating some income earning opportunities for most vulnerable IDPs and host communities, and in particular women and children in the target locations.

The intervention targets the most vulnerable IDP and host community households, increasing access to basic needs, WASH services and enhancing their resilience. Activities include: water access through vouchers, garbage collection through cash for work, installation of hand pumps on wells, drilling of a borehole, construction of storage tanks, construction of latrines, hygiene promotion (including distribution of soap, water filters and jerry cans) and capacity building of WES, settlement committees and local authorities.

CHF-DMA-0489-084 “Sustainable and integrated WASH interventions for disaster-affected population in south central regions of Somalia through participatory and gender-sensitive access to safe water supply, improved sanitation and hygiene practices” – 1,389,336$

Failure of rainfall linked to prevailing La Niña event affecting Somalia, has caused a severe water crisis in many part of the country. Central and South Somalia are in particular affected.

Late 2010, YME\GSA\Norsom conducted field trip into the drought areas. The lessons learnt from the trip as well as consultations with WASH Cluster partners is the need for rehabilitation and construction of strategic water sources; integrating a gender sensitive component of sanitation and hygiene promotion. Based on this, YME and its implementing partners are seeking funding for Rehabilitation and Construction of Strategic Water Sources in South Central Somalia.

 The challenge of maintaining existing productive water sources in SCZ is increasing because of various factors ranging from poor maintenance, deteriorating essential borehole equipments such pump and generator, degenerating and contaminated water storage tanks, rusting raising pipes, leaking water distribution pipes and lack of ownership by beneficiary communities; to inadequate investment in local human resource. YME proposes the drilling of 5 new boreholes and rehabilitation of 2 existing Boreholes complete with essential equipments, storage facilities, water distribution system and community hygiene & sanitation programs in Mudug, Galgadud and Hiraan.


CHF-DMA-0489-085 “Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Intervention for drought affected Populations in Somalia. Oxfam GB” – 580,302$

Somalia  is now facing one of the worst droughts due to failure of the short rains such that the severity of the drought continues to increase unusually. The effects of the droughts are exacerbated by persistent conflicts and subsequent influx of IDPs in the area that increases the pressure on water sources due to increased demand. Assessments revealed that access to safe water is less than 20% of the sphere standards in emergencies and trends are worsening. Earth pans dried while wells have minimal yields whereas boreholes are involved in frequent breakdown and others collapse due to poor protection against floods. 52,248 people identified as vulnerable are in need of immediate assistance to increase access to safe water within the critically affected villages especially those not covered under the ongoing Oxfam programms (see detailed list of target beneficiaries in the Documents section).  

The immediate option is to provide emergency water supply to most vulnerable h/hs. To improve the situation is a sustainable manner, strategic boreholes will have to be drilled as replacement of the collapsed ones. 5lts per person per day will need to be provided so that households can access the minimum amount of 7.5lts/p/d as per WASH Cluster guidelines. For the wells, the strategy is to increase yield and /or storage to enhance the amount of water available. Under this proposal, Oxfam is planning to; rehabilitation of wells, conducting hydro-geologica survey for drilling and development of more strategic boreholes and conection to nutrition & health centres and providing immediate water through voucher system for 20 days to the critically affected villages where completion of ongoing program is expected soon. H/H treatment will be provided using current Oxfam stock to communities utiliizing unprotected sources as well.

CHF-DMA-0489-089 “Emergency response to the need for increased and sustained access to safe water, sanitation services and hygiene promotion in Somalia” – 255,309$                              

Protracted conflict in Somalia has eroded the social services fabric leaving humanitarian actors as the sole provider of the services. Failure of the Deyr rains linked to the prevailing La Niña event has caused severe water shortage resulting in increased migration of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists (numbering 435,000 in HE and AFLC), water and cereal prices, competition for water sources resulting in livestock mortalities and an overall loss of livelihoods across the region.

Local coping mechanisms are overstretched as families and IDPS struggle to adjust to these multiple shocks. Drought affected communities in Galgaduud-Abduwak and Puntland-Eyl can hardly access water for domestic and animal use. Water is scarce, in distant locations and very expensive (US$ 0.4 - 0.8/20 litre jerican). Communal water sources are depleted, resulting in a loss of livelihoods. People's hygiene standards are compromised and the lack of appropriate hygiene information and sanitation facilities exacerbate the situation.   

 The project, in an integrated version, plans to deliver a package of support services  in areas that have an urgent need for water and sanitation interventions to mitigate the impact of the drought.

The target areas need water commitees and hygiene promoters to be used  in monitoring water distribution, rehabilitation of water infrastructure and when holding hygiene campaigns.

In Eyl, there will be construction and rehabilitation of water sources and target beneficaries will receive water through the voucher for water system while  Distribution of Ceramic filters will be done in Abduwak. Latrines and hygiene promotion activities will be done accross the project target areas.

CHF-DMA-0489-098 “Emergency and Sustainable WASH Project for Mudug and Galgaduud Regions” – 325,518$

"The central region of Somalia is facing a severe water shortage following failure of the short rains (Deyr). In Galgadud (Abudwak, Adado, and Dusamareb districts), access to water is abysmal and  water consumption also does not meet the Sphere minimum standard of 15 litres per person per day (RI’s assessment revealed only between 3 and 5 litres of water are used per person per day). No more than 30 percent of the population has access to latrines, and the number of persons accessing each latrine far exceeds the Sphere emergency standard of 50 persons per latrine.

In the two proposed project locations (Mudug and Galgadud regions), water in berkads, communal dams, and water catchments are completely depleted. Communities displaced by drought and conflict have settled in isolated areas far from permanent water points, and they cannot afford the high cost of trucked water by private firms. In the communities RI assessed, it was found that when using communal water and sanitation facilities, women and adolescent girls can be vulnerable to sexual violence or exploitation as the distances to water points are far and exposed, and women and girls are often attacked or approached in the process. Cholera outbreaks have occurred in all settlements surveyed. On average, up to four 20-liter jerry cans are taken per visit to any water point, and are usually carried by women or children.

RI is proposing this WASH project in Galkayo district of Mudug region, and Abudwak and Adado districts of Galgadud region. RI intends to scale up its existing WASH intervention to fill gaps in North and South Galkayo and to expand services in Galgadud region.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

CHF-DMA-0489-099 “Provision of emergency water and sanitation support in Hiraan region and Wanlaweyn district” – 340,000$                                                                                                               

Hiran region has remained at crisis levels since Gu’ 09 and according to the FSNAU Nutrition Analysis, Post Deyr 2010/11technical report released on February 25, 2011 indicated that 70% of the total population in Hiran region is in crisis with 129,000 in HE and 63,000 in AFLC. Furthermore, both FSNAU Post Deyr 2010/11 technical report and rapid inter-agency drought assessment in west Hiran region indicated that Southern Inland Pastoral of Hiran region as the most threatened by the water crisis where livestock deaths reported due to the scarcity of water and pasture.

In Wanlaweyn district, FSNAU Post Deyr 2010/11 technical report indicated that Lower Shabelle population in crisis has increased to 9,000 of rural population with early warning level of high risk to AFLC (25% poor) in the southern agropastoral in Wanlaweyn district areas. However, the populations of both project target locations have either lack or using open water sources while most of the populations have limited access to sanitation facilities deteriorating to the public health

With funding support of CHF emergency window, WARDI currently started the implementation of the project entitled as “Emergency Rehabilitation of Strategic Boreholes in Hiraan Region”.

In addition to that, the activities under this project include : 1. Rehabilitation of 3 boreholes in Buqkoosaar, Buqcaqable and Bilal villages; 2. Rehabilitation of 4 water catchments in Biyoneef, Dhariyow, Raangaabo and Raso villages through cash for work; 3. WES committees training; 4. Training for community hygiene promoters at 7 target villages; 5. Supporting hygiene promotion among communities at 7 target villages through PHAST methodology; 6. Soap distribution to support hygiene promotion at 7 target villages.   

CHF-DMA-0489-102 “Emergency Rehabilitation of Water points to the drought affected areas   in Hiraan Region” – 106,549.60$

In Hiraan region, the impact of the poor rains has deteriorated the water sanitation of the region and has also weakened the purchasing power of the community.

While access to water has enhanced due to 2010 WASH projects, there are critical needs, particularly for the people in Beletweyne. The HWS team has recently assessed some severely drought-affected areas in Hiiraan region, including Halgan borehole. The borehole in Halgan is very important for that population as it is the main water source they depend on. A number of shallow wells are of limited water supply because of poor condition state and need rehabilitation. A rehabilitation will offset the difficulties of the communities depending on it. HWS has selected those specific 15 shallow based on their strategic locations and the distance between them.

CHF-DMA-0489-113 “Emergency Provision of Safe and Sustained Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities for Drought- and Conflict-Affected Vulnerable Communities in Jalalaqsi” – 179,997.56$                                                                                                          

The ongoing drought due to the lack of the past 7 consecutive rain seasons in Jalalaqsi is already having a significant impact on Jalalaqsi peoples livelihoods and household economy, with a high rate of livestock losses, a collapse of livestock markets, a drastic reduction of milk production, and an increase of cereal prices. A recent assessment conducted by Techno Plan indicates that accessibility of safe and sufficient water for both human and livestock is the main problem  since many water points are depleted and the few remaining shallow wells require rehabilitation  so that people to be able to fetch water for themselves and for their livestock. The number of people in humanitarian emergency is increasing rapidly due to the current prevailing severe drought.

Almost all the people in the rural pastoral villages have migrated or moved to agro-pastoral villages and the Jalalaqsi town. These people put a lot of pressure to the poor agro-pastoral families since they are sharing with their water sources, toilets and many other resources. Thus, this made a total of 18,000 individuals and their livestock do not have access to safe and sufficient water. These include more than 12,000 persons that do not have access to latrines and safe environment.

Therefore the rationale for this project is to enable a total of 23,240 drought-affected poor people to have access to safe and sustained water and sanitation facilities through the  rehabilitation of 34 wells without animal troughs in 16 different agro-pastoral locations with total beneficiaries of 9,440 individuals, upgrade of 18 Shallow Wells with animal troughs in 10 locations with total beneficiaries of 5,900 individuals and chlorinate 50 shallow wells by 100 chlorinators, distribute chlorine to 500 households and train 100 water management committees to chlorinate the shallow wells and ensure the safety and the operation the water sources. Also in order to improve and promote health and hygienic environment the project aims to construct 46 communal latrines: 36 in Jalalaqsi and 10 in Dirgoys Village whereby total of 2,717 people will directly benefit from the communal latrines. 24 school toilet in 4 different schools with total beneficiaries of 480 and 16 toilets in 3 health centers with total beneficiaries of 300.

CHF-DMA-0489-112 “Emergency Response and Preparedness in Drought Affected Eastern Somaliland (Togdheer and Sool Regions)” – 611,999$

As a result of water shortage due to inadequate rains, prolonged droughts coupled with poor sanitary conditions, people (mainly women and young children) suffer from frequent outbreaks of water related diseases such as cholera/diarrhoea in Somaliland. While the majority of people live in rural areas, most financial support for the water sector is concentrated on urban water supply schemes. This has resulted in a big proportion of the population remaining unserved whilst the water demand continues to increase due to population growth and the influx of returnees and IDPs from neighboring conflict areas. Rural population/ IDPs are particularly vulnerable to drought because of their limited adaptive capacity and are in dire need of basic WASH services that sustain their livelihoods.

The project will focus on the most vulnerable populations (35,000 people), mainly the Eastern Togdheer/Sool Plateau pastoral areas, returnee and IDP settlements with clean water,hygiene and sanitation promotion and emergency preparedness capacity building to strengthen coping mechanisms of disaster (drought and flash floods) affected communities.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

CHF-DMA-0489-119 “Provision of Safe Water, Appropriate Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion to Vulnerable Groups in Adaado, Abduwak and Afmadow Districts in South-Central Somalia” – 613,000$

In Adaado, Abduwak and Afmadow districts, assessments revealed that access to water is a major problem for 100% of the pastoral populations, 80% of the IDPs and 70% of the agro-pastoralist. 80% of the water catchments are small, silted and have either limited and turbid water or have completely dried up. Most of water structures are old, have reduced capacity and yield and are at high risk of contamination. Long queuing time (45min to 1h), long distance to water sources (5-10km) and lack of appropriate sanitation facilities are main problems identified by 85% of the women interviewed. The community depends on rain fed water catchments and shallow wells which are not able to meet the demand. Populations living far from reliable sources are the worst hit in times of drought as increases in cost of water limits the amount of water a family can access per day. Limited coverage of sanitation facilities and open defecation in Adaado, Abduwak and Afmadow districts expose the community to the risk of water related diseases.

The project will support the population by improving water quantity and quality, capacity to prepare and respond to emergencies, awareness on hygiene and sanitation practices and to increase coverage of sanitation facilities.


CHF-DMA-0489-127 “Increase Access to Safe and Sustainable Drinking Water and Appropriate Sanitation Facilities, As Well As Equitably Promote Good Hygiene Practices for Vulnerable Women, Girls, Boys and Men Displaced by Drought and Conflict, and Vulnerable Host Communities in South Mudug Region” – 184,300$

South Mudug has been hit hard by current drought as a result of failure of Deyr 2010 rains, worsened by erratic Gu 2010. The situation is exacerbated by successive seasons of below normal rains. As a result some shallow wells and berkhads dried out while others contain only crude salt-water that is unfit for both human and animal consumption. Unconfirmed number of animals have died while many others are reported to be physically weak and cannot move for long distance in search of water and pasture. The situation continues to deteriorate with the continuing long Jilaal dry season as drought displaced communities have settled in villages with permanent water sources such as boreholes thus crowding them.

SDRO intends to increases access to safe and sustainable drinking water and promote good hygiene practices amongst the most vulnerable 38,000 persons (2,733 urban households and 3,600 nomadic households) in Hobyo and South Galkayo districts by rehabilitating 3 boreholes in Dagaari,village, south Galkayo District, Dawgab and and Galqurun villages in Hobyo District as well as 23 shallow wells  in  Hilmo, Dhuure, Qarsoni, Herodhagaxley and Qaydaro villages that are greatly affected by drought. The boreholes production capacity has greatly reduced due to mechanical problems of their generators, submersible pumps and raiser pipes that are worn out and have not been repaired for a long time. The rehabilitated boreholes will provide sustainable safe drinking water throughout the year for the urban and pastoral communities since there are no sustainable water sources in these locations and they are worst affected by drought with a high number of livestock deaths while rehabilitated  shallow wells will enhance water retention as well as protect water from pollution since the existing ones are greatly dilapidated.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

CHF-DMA-0489-129 “Increase Access to Safe Drinking Water and Improve Sanitation Facilities for People Affected by Drought and Conflict in Dhuusamarreeb District” – 191,455$

Dhusamareeb District like other parts of Somalia has experienced the effect of La Nina phenomenon characterised by higher than normal temperatures, persistent drought and no rainfall. The situation continues to deteriorate with the beginning of long Jilaal dry season. Water sources including berkads (cement lined underground water tanks) and water catchments are completely depleted as well as pasture that has impacted to animal migration and increased competition amongst pastoralists. As a result, livestock body condition has deteriorated leading to their low market values while unknown number of livestock death has been reported in some places. The situation is exacerbated by food insecurity and high malnutrition rates as crop production along the riverine areas has been significantly reduced while there has been total crop failure in agro-pastoral livelihoods of Southern Central Somalia including Dusamareeb district. The worst affected populations are in Dhusamareeb districts surrounding villages of Guriceel and Eldhere.

IIDA womens organization will increase access to safe drinking water,improve sanitation  facilities and enhance good hygiene practices and demonstrate household water treatment techniques to benefit  22,370 most vulnerable women, girls, boys and men from displaced and host communities in Eldhere and Guriceel villages by drilling one borehole in Eldhere village, constructing 50 latrines in two(Hagay and Cagaf) IDPs camps in Guricel with the highest number of new IDPs, enhancing awareness on good hygiene practices and demonstrating household water treatment techniques to7,456 displaced persons  in Guricel IDP camp and selected 7,456 persons in Eldhere village.


CHF-DMA-0489-130 “Increased and sustained access to life saving safe water and sanitation through rehabilitation of water and sanitation facilities, hygiene promotion and capacity development in vulnerable communities” – 315,000$                                                                                                  

Access to safe water and sanitation in Puntland  has continued to deteriorate leading to overstretched water points from drought related destitution and displacement but also poor maintenance of water  and sanitation facilities. Conditions observed in villages visited by IAS in February 2011 in Burtinle and Gaalkayo districts include; influx of people and animals to the few operational boreholes, berkads that have already been depleted, berkad water is becoming sludgy  and more contaminated and dramatic increases in water cost in most places. Poor access to adequate water has severely compromised the general health and nutrition status of observed communities due to poor hygiene conditions and consumption of contaminated water. Similarly, livestock and livelihoods are severely threatened by the scarcity. So, rebuilding community water source resilience will not only save lives but also livelihoods.

In the proposed areas communities urgently require increased access to life saving water through rehabilitation of strategic water points. 78% of the target beneficiaries are pastoralist, displaced pastoralists and urban dwellers. 17% comprise IDPs. Boreholes in these areas are currently either broken down, over stretched or under productive from poor repair and maintenance. The few functional hand dug wells need development and protection. Rehabilitating boreholes and wells will both increase the number of water facilities available and reduce the demand exerted on each water point and the chances of breaking down. Water trucking through the voucher system to allow access to the most vulnerable members of the community facing acute water shortage. Observed poor hygiene status from open defecation requires intervention to improve human waste disposal in the form of pit latrines for households as well as public institutions.This will be combined with sustained hygiene information dissemination through all sections of the community (schools, public institutions, households) and community based water point maintenance.  

CHF-DMA-0489-138 “Nugaal Region Drought Survival and Mitigation WASH project” – 255,187$                                                                                                             

According to FSNAU due to the droughts there are 50,000 people in humanitarian crisis in Nugaal region including 10,000 in HE and 40,000 in AFLC. Tragically this means 34% of the Nugaal population are in HE/AFLC (1). The current humanitarian situation requires urgent emergency drought interventions to save lives and protect livelihoods. Water is the single most urgent need in the affected areas. The chronic issues affecting the nutrition status of the population such as inadequate health and sanitation facilities and lack of adequate safe drinking water remain the most critical challenge and require immediate attention.

This project target locations consist of 10 villages from Eyl district and 4 from Burtinle district in the Coastal Deeh and Addun livelihood zones of Nugaal region. The project aims to improve sustainable and equal access to safe and adequate water, sanitation and hygiene services to increase the survival and mitigate the drought impact on the communities.

CHF-DMA-0489-151 “Improving Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities for Drought- and Conflict-Affected Populations in Somaliland, Puntland and South-Central Somalia” – 543,324$                                                                                                              

Displacement in Somalia due to conflict is exacerbated by a prolonged drought in large parts of the country. Available water is insufficient to cover the needs of the host population and the newly displaced. High demand, low supply and long trucking distances have increase water prices. Drought assessments (see attachments) highlighted high levels of dependency on inadequate water infrastructure, with water access for humans and animals limited to few boreholes or shallow wells that are often overstretched as they operate for 20-24 hours a day during periods of peak demand. In many places, shallow wells have dried up or lack capacity to provide clean water. There is a risk of epidemics as a result of poor hygiene and sanitation habits, as well as an increased risk of localized conflicts over access to water sources. The multiple pressures and shocks have pushed resilient populations beyond their coping limits, a situation which may continue until the next gu rains (April – May), or longer if the gu rains are below normal.

The rehabilitation/construction of strategic water points will ensure that communities will improve access water and save productive and economic assets. In areas where water exists, but is too expensive for vulnerable households, provision of water vouchers or water trucking will improve access to water during this emergency period. Where populations are at risk due to inadequate water and sanitation facilities, infrastructure improvements will run in parallel with structured training programs for WASH committees and other stakeholders to strengthen their capacity to manage water structures.


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If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Somalia or the lead agency for the programme. The MPTF Office Portfolio Manager (or Country Director with Delegation of Authority) for this programme:

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