Project Factsheet
Tools for » Environment Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change
Project ID:00067152Description:MDGF-1681-E-MOZ Env Climate
MDG Achievement Fund
Start Date *: 7 Sep 2007
MDGF Environ Climate Chg
End Date*: 31 Aug 2012
Country: Mozambique Project Status: Financially Closed
  Participating Organization:   Multiple


Southern Mozamique includes the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) of which Chicualalcuala district lies. It is the area worst affected by floods. In order to address the needs of the highly vulnerable population, the government requested the JP to focus on Chicualacuala for the intervention. The two problems the JP addressed was: 1) the non-inclusion of environmental and climate change considerations in the majority of government policies and plans, and 2) the weak adaptive capacity of the rural population to climate change (CC) impact. The JP supports directly the NAPA (National Adaptation Plan of Action) of the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) that has the overall goal to strengthen national capacity to cope with CC effects.  It is structured around five outcomes.

Very few people in Mozambique knew of climate change and its consequences when the JP started in September 2008. The address this, a comprehensive sensitization programme was undertaken including seminars, workshops, exchange visits and the development of education material. As a result a wide group of decision makers at all levels (national, provincial, district and community) have now a basic understanding of environmental management and CCA (climate change adaptation). This has further contributed to mainstreaming these issues in government plans. For example, environment and CC have been incorporated in the Chicualacuala district 5-year strategic development plan (PEDD), in the strategy for food security and nutrition (ESAN II), and in the annual contingency plan of the INGC (Institute for Disaster Relief Management).

Under the second outcome capacity development of provincial and district staff and community leaders was undertaken. A risk mapping exercise done jointly with the National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) produced a high quality report that is used for district development planning in Chicualacuala, and the study was replicated by INGC in 14 other vulnerable districts. A training workshop for district level decision makers fin the Limpopo Basin took place as part of the development of an integrated water management plan (IWPM), the first training of this type in Mozambique.

Under the third outcome a three part study on understanding the socio-economic consequences of CC and develop a climate proofing strategy in the Limpopo river basin was commissioned. The firs two parts were completed, dealing with physical and socio-economic impacts of CC, and the priority areas selected for climate proofing in the Limpopo river basin.

Under outcome four a range of activities were undertaken in a total of 18 communities in Chicualacuala district that benefited over 2,000 families and provided indirect benefits to many others. The specific results are listed under the fourth outcome.

Under outcome five results were again principally felt at the community level. The JP has been able to improve the management of water resources in rural communities by expanding irrigated agricultural production, installing household and community rainwater harvesting systems, drilling boreholes equipped with solar pumps and storage tanks and building livestock drinking troughs. Community water management committees have been created and trained to manage these installations.  To strengthen the capacity of agricultural producers in Chicualacuala district numerous interventions in the area of water development, agriculture, horticulture, livestock health and production, agro-processing, fish framing, beekeeping and forestry were undertaken.

CC mainstreaming was part of the sensitization campaign and reached all levels of government, civil society groups and academics, journalists, so that CC have become incorporated into plans and policies. CC adaptation, however, focused at the district level through a range of different activities that made communities more resilient and aware of CCA strategies and mechanisms.


Outcome 1:

Government, civil society, communities and other stakeholders informed, sensitized and empowered on environment and climate change issues.

Outcome achievements:

  • A publication entitled “Adaptation to CC in semi-arid environments. Experiences and lessons from Mozambique” was published (including on international CC websites) and widely distributed. One policy brief on CCA has been produced, and one methodological guideline on integration of climate change in district development plans was done. Another important result was the GIS-based data and maps on CC vulnerability. The experience from the JP in Chicualacuala was replicated by INGC to 14 other districts in the Limpopo and Zambezi river basins. Based on these maps, SETSAN (Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition) produced development profiles in the same districts highlighting the links between risk mapping and the production of reports on food security and nutritional vulnerability as part of policy formulation in natural disaster reduction.
  • A series of trainings, workshops and publications have been developed.  Various exchange visits and study tours with government staff, farmers, community representatives, took place. Sensitization and empowerment of government staff and rural community resulted in the strengthening of these institutions (example exchange visit to neighboring Chibuto district to study water harvesting ponds and dams and through the risk analysis exercise, the JP trained on job and capacitated 10 technicians from INGC).


Outcome 2:

Government capacity at central and decentralized levels to implement existing environment policies strengthened.

Outcome achievements:

  • Support to INGC to elaborate annual contingency plans for disaster reduction was provided. Four workshops on participative environmental planning were held for community leaders and local officials, school teachers, and district level disaster relief committees. The result of the risk mapping was published and widely distributed.
  • To enhance the Early Warning capacity a radio antenna was installed expanding the coverage, based on solar energy system. In addition meteorological equipment was provided to improve forecasting abilities.
  • Media and journalists visited the JP and gave national coverage of the experiences in Chicualacuala. Three environmental and CC training workshops targeting 90 community environmental educators were given in December 2010. In summary through training in environmental planning, awareness raising for journalists and other stakeholders, the installation of meteorological station and expansion of the coverage of the community radio there have been improvement in Disaster risk management and planning capacity.


Outcome 3:

Climate proofing methodology mainstreamed into government development plans, UN/donors’ programming and local stakeholders’ activities and investments.

Outcome achievements:

  • In 2010 a workshop with 90 stakeholders was organized on CC and climate proofing, attended by 90 participants under MICOA leadership and support of the JP. Another seminar was held in Maputo in 2011, with over 30 high-level participants and a total of some 130 involved in the preparation and dissemination of the information shared at the seminar. But this is the most difficult aspect of the JP, as climate proofing was an unknown concept. The three part study is reportedly going to be completed after the end of the JP.


Outcome 4:

Community copying mechanisms to climate change enhanced.

Outcome achievements:

  • A study was undertaken in 2010 and a comprehensive report drafted. This was used to inform a wide range of activities that were carried out in a total of 18 communities, but with special emphasis on three communities close to the Limpopo river (Ndombe, Mapuvule and Chissapa) where a more comprehensive support was given, consisting in: promotion of irrigated agriculture/horticulture, fish farming, pig keeping, bee keeping, training and equipping of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHW) to vaccinate animals and treat diseases, formation and training of a community natural resource management committee, supply of agricultural equipment and inputs, training in agro processing. In the other 15 villages one or more of the activities was conducted. In addition, water harvesting systems were established and renewable energy systems installed for water pumping and electricity supply.
  • Under the same component, 6 community areas were demarcated and officially registered, 24 community forest guards were trained and equipped to manage their respective areas, training in territorial planning was given to over 100 district level government officials and community leaders. Agro forestry demonstrations were set up at sites in 5 communities using fruit or fodder trees.
  • In terms of water management, one hundred household rainwater systems were installed, 50 in Chucualacuala town and 50 in Mapai, six additional water point have been drilled, four of which use solar water pumping systems.
  •  Conservation techniques for agricultural practices were promoted (among some 200+ farmers) in six communities with mixed results. Absence of fencing of agricultural plots was a problem given animal invasion of the crops. Promotion of animal manure for biogas use was piloted, but the system is not yet complete.


Outcome 5:

Communities´ livelihood options diversified.

Outcome achievements:

  • In line with diversification solar water pumping systems were installed on boreholes in 7 communities, along with the establishment of a water management committee.  Improved fuel-efficient stoves were not promoted and this is one activity that did not receive enough attention. CAHW did not provide data but indicated that livestock mortality and morbidity had been significantly reduced as a result of their work in the 18 communities. Two training courses in improved techniques for animal traction were held (60 farmers, many women using donkeys).


Best practices:

  • The JP strove to create synergies through effective inter-agency communication and partnerships.
  • The JP highlights the benefits of working jointly, as ONE. Working together, it was possible to achieve very useful an integrated final result timely.The JP tried various different approaches with a focus to improve community awareness, capacity and resilience to address CCA.


Lessons learned:

  • A baseline assessment should have been done in the JP design phase and longer time is needed for implementation of a project operating in remote areas.
  • A programme coordinator for the entire JP would enhance efficiency and coordination.
  • Buy-in from beneficiaries and local government is essential from day one.
  • Water is central and critical to CCA in Chicualalcuala – assessing water availability potential influences significantly adaptive capacity to climate change.
  • The use of renewable energy (solar or from organic waste), and its use for increasing production and adding value should be supported at all times as CCA.


More details can be found in the final project report:

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If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Mozambique or the lead agency for the programme. The MPTF Office Portfolio Manager (or Country Director with Delegation of Authority) for this programme:

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