Project Factsheet
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Project ID:00075910Description:CHF Somalia LIVELIHOODS/OCHA-N
Somalia Humanitarian Fund
Start Date *: 28 Jul 2010
End Date*: 6 Dec 2011
Country: Somalia Project Status: Financially Closed
  Participating Organization:   NGO/OCHA - NGO implementation/OCHA

CHF-DMA-0489-001 “Incorporated Cash for Work and Productive Assets Rehabilitation/transfer in Support of Populations in Food Security Crisis areas of Harardere district of South Mudug” -255,394$

The project area has experienced increased incidences of conflict, and loss of livelihoods resulting to human displacements. In the month of April and May 2010, over 50,000 people were displaced in the according to the latest Inter-Agency Standing Committee‘s Population Movement (IASC) Tracking update. Although some rains were received in the Gu season, it was not enough to alleviate the problems as this followed seven consecutive seasons of drought. This has increased the suffering made worse by high prices of food.

Civil insecurity has increased food insecurity by disrupting market supply and delivery of humanitarian aid, affecting the internally displaced population (IDP). Recent nutritional assessment indicated a Very Critical situation with increased malnutrition levels in Central parts, which has recently seen a lot of displacement due to civil insecurity (

During the drought that preceded the rains, the number of shoats that died is estimated at 784730 which are about 30% of the total shoats.

Water problems experienced in the region include long distance trekking especially by women in search of water, time wastage, drudgendary by women and children,  poor quality water that result to outbreak of water related diseases, drying up of water sources during drought which further aggravate the problem of trekking.  Pupils and students get thirsty during learning which reduces their concentration. In addition, there is malnutrition, famine and sometimes death of both livestock and humans when the drought situations get severe.

Since the Gu rains started, the shoats have started to recover but the effects of the prolonged severe drought was long term and some are still weak. Furthermore, the drought affected the people’s socio economic factors and recovery from the drought requires a multi sectoral approach. The women who are the owners of the small shoats are finding it difficult to get involved in activities that will make them more productive such as farming and trade due to the effects of drought.

In 2009, ARDO implemented a project by FAO on cash for work that helped the community to cope. This project will inject money into the people’s livelihoods by purchasing and slaughtering the weak shoats. The meat will be distributed to the poor and vulnerable HH in HE mainly those that are female headed. Special attention will be accorded households with malnourished children. Furthermore, purchasing of the weak shoats from the community will give meaning to their reliance on livestock as a source of livelihood as they will not be lost hence the need to continue with the practice. Rehabilitation of water catchments (unlined ponds) for rain water harvesting will inject money into the community and this will further make it possible for the community to afford basic needs like food and water. Eventually when the rains come in the subsequent rainy seasons, the benefitting communities will have more access to water for their livestock and own consumption and this will eventually increase dependency on livelihoods and improve their livelihood.


CHF-DMA-0489-002 “Quick Livelihood Support intervention through Asset Transfer to Targeted Vulnerable Pastoralist Households in Cadaado District” -552,500$                                                                        

Central region of Somalia has experienced 6 consecutive rain season failures resulting in severe immediate past drought that the region is just recovering from with the current improved 2010 Gu rain season. As a result of the immediate past drought 76% of the population of Galgadud region were classified by FSNAU as within Acute Food and Livelihood Crisis (AFLC) and Humanitarian Emergency (HE).  Restrictions of livestock migration between clans boundaries (resulting in abnormal migrations as observed since the post 2009 Gu season ) and difficult of the natural resource sharing (water, pasture and grazing) combined with further diminishing of humanitarian space and the accompanying impact of declining social support among livelihoods and wealth groups, are some of the impacts of past drought and conflicts as observed by FSNAU . Consequently pastoralists (mainly from Hawd Livelihood group) and IDPs from within and outside Cadaado District are currently among the most vulnerable groups in Cadaado District, exhibiting high malnutrition rate of 19 GAM  (above the 15% threshold), with no income or livelihood means as a result of losing assets including livestock and moving to increasingly becoming dependant in relief aid including for the household food requirements.

CPD, a Local NGO with operations in Cadaado and other Districts of Galgadud Region, having analysed and consulted with the two observed Hawd Pastoralist and IDPs Households living in conditions of destitution in Cadaado District as observed, seeks to apply for CHF funding to support urgently required restoration of lost livelihood means for 1,100 destitute Hawd Pastoralists Households from within 71 vulnerable rural pastoralist settlements in the District. The entire targeted Population groups are currently living in 10 Main Refuge Settlements where they settled at the height of the drought in search of water and food relief. Planned livelihood supportive actions as prioritized by the planned beneficiary groups include a restocking  support targeting 1,100 (6,600 people) Hawd Pastoralists Households. "      

The effect of the severe droughts have also dimished the coping mechanisms of the pastoralist society - previously in such situations the pastoralist society used to allocate some breeding animals to the households destiuted by droughts or other disasters in order to main their livelihoods. Due to the severity of the drought, such good coping mechanisms have been eroded and thus necessiated the need for external support and that is why CPD is going to address this problem throught this project. The loss of essential assets of the pastoralists, mainly livestock has resulted high malnutrition condition. To reverse the trend CPD is going to implement this restocking project which will improve the nutrition situation of the targeted destitute pastoralists IDPs. The project will provide 7 pcs of shoats (3 breeding/pregnant female goats, 3 calves and 1 buck) to 1,000 Pastoralist HHs who are the most vulnerable and who have lost their assets in the droughts and 100 pack animals to another 100 Pastoralists HHs wo as a result of the droughts have lost their pack animals.


CHF-DMA-0489-003 “Improving self reliance of conflict affected populations and the resilience of their livelihoods in Afgooye, Lower Shabelle region” – 291,305$

While there is no doubt that both emergency and recovery support is needed in Somalia, decades of chronic aid have contributed to a sense of dependency that has undermined peoples’ willingness to harness their own potential of self-sufficiency. People living in a protracted humanitarian crisis face increasing livelihood burdens without longer-term solutions in sight. However, these people are far from helpless, they are resilient and are able to, a greater and lesser degree, take care of themselves if they are given the opportunity to do so. Somalia’s agricultural farmers once sold and traded their production. Now many of the formerly productive farmlands of Lower Shebelle produce only a fraction of their potential or lay fallow.

A October 2009 DRC survey of 200 farming households in five communities in Afgoyie District found that the key difficulties and constraints that farmers face are: cost of irrigating fields (fuel/pump rental and rehabilitation of canals), insufficient technical know-how coupled with no access to extension services, lack of access to sufficient amounts of quality inputs (seeds, tools, etc.), and low sale rates when food aid is delivered during and just after the harvest period. These limiting factors create a vicious cycle where farmers lack the needed capital to invest in their farms, resulting in under-productive to non-productive farms, which leads to a less income being generated from their farms, which contributes to a lack of capital to invest in their farms.

The proposed project aims to promote durable livelihood opportunities that are adapted to the local environment, foster participation, empowerment and support self-sufficiency. DRC piloted similar agricultural activities in Afgoyie District in 2009. The program's longer-term larger-investment approach was highly valued by a population that most often has its needs addressed by short-term emergency activities; the targeting of the host population eased the tensions between host and IDP communities that are often a result of the prevailing approach of exclusively targeting IDPs; increased crop production allowed households to better meet their own needs, to repay loans, to store seeds for subsequent seasons and to sell their production on the market. Increased self-sufficiency increased the resilience, the dignity and the sense of self-worth of the targeted households. Increased on-farm production also promoted day-labor opportunities for on-farm laborers. 

The project aims to support rural farmers in the areas of Afgoyie District that surround Mogadishu during two agricultural seasons (Deyr and Gu). The support will be tailored to ensure that targeted farmers have higher agricultural productivity for subsequent seasons. The on-farm production will be both consumed by the farming household and the surplus will be sold/traded, used to repay debts, etc. It is foreseen that this intervention will contribute to an improved nutritional status for the beneficiaries through increased food intake (quality/quantity) from the consumption of on-farm production and increased access to basic household needs and basic services such as health and hygiene related items/services, through income earned from the sale of on-farm production.

Farmers in the areas surrounding Mogadishu are skilled and have access to land which can produce high yielding crops. Due to the impacts of conflict and drought, these farmers have not been able to re-establish their farms that once served as food sources for Mogadishu and other areas of Somalia. The areas near their farms are increasingly settled by large influxes of displaced people from Mogadishu which enables increased market demand — however farmers are not able to meet this demand. In order to revitalize agricultural production and allow farmers to meet both their own food needs and to earn income from supplying markets that supply food to residents and IDPs, DRC will provide the capital inputs that are needed to jump start targeted farms. DRC will provide tractors to till and aerate fallow lands, supply irrigation through the rehabilitation of canals and the provision of water, seeds, tools and fertilizer. Additionally DRC will provide practical agricultural training and on-farm extension services. The targeted households will provide their land and contribute labor to the rehabilitation of canals. Farmers will be selected through a participatory approach. Criteria will be developed by DRC and the community, and will be geared to support poor motivated farming households who are not able to access the inputs or the support needed to maximize the potential of their land holdings or the land they rent.


CHF-DMA-0489-004 “Intervention for the Protection of livelihood and improvement of Nutrition conditions in Lower Shabelle” -357,500$      

Based on the FSNAU Technical series Reports No VI.31, Report No VI 30, the press release issued on May 6 2010 as well as the Food security & Nutrition Quarterly brief of June 2010 it is clear that despite the best harvest of recent years, the food and nutrition situation of certain groups, especially women and children is still in a bad state. Although children may seem healthy 50% of all women, 30% of all school aged children and 60% of children under 5 in Somalia were classified as anaemic from the FSNAU/FAO/University College of London study that was published in May 2010.  Anaemia is a condition where there is insufficient red blood, which can be caused by malnutrition. This can cause limited growth, increase risk of infectious diseases and an increased risk of death.

Urban livelihoods are still under threat with many of them living in a state of human emergency according to the FSNAU technical series report No VI. 31. The number of people in Crisis in Lower Shabelle is estimated to be 60.000.

WOCCA has been running “Community based emergency intervention in favor of IDPs population Middle-Lower Shebelle regions in South Somalia” in Afgoi since 2008. The project aims at to increase protection amongst women headed households, youth and children. For women we developed an income generation skills activities such as tailoring and provided the machines to a group of women to further generate their own incomes.

The most direct way to fight the malnourished state of many of these women and children is to increase their food intake, especially nutrient rich foods as meat, eggs, milk, vegetables, fruit and /or fish. The activities proposed directly increase the diet of the people and increase the livelihood of the people at the same time. The project wants to provide 4 goats to 687 families and 20 chicken to 250 families. This will directly increase their nutrient intake and alternatively will improve their financial situation. The poorest of the host community will be given vegetable seed for either diet improvement or as a possibility to cash in on this crop. Other host community families will profit from land preparation by a cash for work program that will be implemented with the help of the IDP community. Finally the local community will benefit from a modern farming techniques training which will result in improved harvest and therefore improved livelihood.


CHF-DMA-0489-005 “Provide basic livelihood services to drought affected pastoralists and internally displaced persons in Galgaduud region”- 689,312$

The food security situation in the drought-affected pastoralists in Abudwak and Balanbale towns has deteriorated over the year 2009. Since last deyr 08/09 season, the number of people in urgent humanitarian need has increased and continued to rise as the GU’ rains failed while the deyr 09/10 seems to be performing poorly. The FSANU’s Post GU’ seasonal assessment, have warned of a moderate risk to further deterioration before the end of December 09. If the   situation persists, the overall livelihood conditions for the populace might deteriorate further and lead to an unprecedented catastrophe.

 The food security situation continues to deteriorate due to the cumulative impact of persistent seasonal rain failures, high food and non-food prices, and increased civil insecurity. Food access is significantly reduced in all pastoral livelihoods as a result of extremely  unpalatable rangeland conditions (water and pasture) resulting in very poor livestock body conditions; low to none calving/kidding rates for all livestock species; high livestock deaths and declines in livestock herds much below baseline; and very few marketable livestock available for selling. Poor pastoralists are now becoming destitute and have begun migrating to urban centers in search of alternative livelihood support. The current reduction and failure of crops only serves to compound the effects of the drought and food crisis in the whole of South Central Somalia.

Additionally, the critical humanitarian situation facing pastoralists in the area is further aggravated by inter-religious group conflicts and resource based conflicts in the Southern part of Galgadud region.  Besides the deteriorated livelihood status in the area, pastoralist communities are now, more than ever, facing complete loss of their mainstay, the livestock. Due to the dwindled pasture and water, livestock have weakened while others have already died.

A multi-faceted livelihood intervention is required to support their recovery. Through consultations with various stakeholders on the ground, the following needs have been identified:

1. Support cash based interventions to facilitate access basic livelihood needs for vulnerable households;

2. Support the rehabilitation of existing communal infrastructures in rural and pastoral settlements (targeting water infrastructures);

3. Support the livestock recovery of the destitute households through livestock redistribution;

4. Engage in hygiene and sanitation campaigns to increase household hygiene and sanitation and water and environmental pollution;

5. Strengthen local capacities in an effort to enhance proper management of available resources such as pasture, water and relief.


CHF-DMA-0489-006 “Broad based improved food security for the poor in Afgoi corridor of the Lower Shabelle region of Somalia” -250,000$        

"The target area of the proposed intervention is the Afgoi corridor of the Lower Region of Somalia that houses 366,000 IDPs that fled from Mogadishu due to insecurity (CHF Standard allocation document page 2). These are some of the most vulnerable people in Somalia and an estimated 10,000 are classified as being in High Emergency (HE), whilst all IDPs depend on humanitarian assistance (FSNAU Jun 2010, UNHCR May 2010, FEWS Net Jun 2010). One in five children in the Afgoi corridor is malnourished and despite the good Gu rains there is an anticipation of a possible deterioration of their nutrition situation later in the year. The Afgoi corridor was therefore seen as one of the priority areas for the CHF funds and the proposed intervention comprises lifesaving activities for internally displaced people and groups in Humanitarian Emergency (HE) with critical and very critical nutrition status. At least 1,700 IDP households supporting 11,900 people especially those in HE will therefore be given employment opportunities through cash for work rehabilitating 43 km of crucial irrigation canals with a command area of 8,500 ha. This will initially earn them at least $50 to cater for their basic nutritional needs.

Moreover the proposed action will support at least 11,000 small-scale farmers to cultivate the area served with the rehabilitated canals plus an additional 2,500 ha. Their selection will put strong emphasis on the most vulnerable i.e. those affected by floods, single mother led households, households hosting IDPs. This will create more employment opportunity, generate income from crop sales as well as avail more food within and outside the target area. These interventions will ensuring that vulnerable households in acute food and livelihood crisis (AFLC) maintain and improve their livelihoods assets; support to basic services; and strengthen the protective environment of civilians with an emphasis on vulnerable people and access to services.                                                  

The Afgoi Corridor is endowed with fertile soils and irrigation to produce a range of crops. The rural population is normally able to maintain the smaller secondary and tertiary canals but not have difficulty to seasonally maintain the larger primary ones. Moreover, the target area was affected by floods that destroyed the Gu 2010 crops and left large sections of the farmers vulnerable to recover from these losses. The action will therefore support the rehabilitation of primary canals through cash for work with emphasis on the most affected areas and rural households. This will comprise 48 km serving 8,500 ha that will in synergy thereof also be provided with 90 Mt of maize to be intercropped with 30 Mt of cowpea seeds covering 6,000 ha benefiting 6,000 farmers. This is expected to render 6,000 Mt of maize, 2,400 Mt of cowpeas being able to feed 70,000 people for one year. Moreover, 30 Mt of improved sesame seed will be provided covering 5,000 ha benefiting at least 5,000 additional farmers and rendering 1,750 Mt of sesame grain of which 40% will be edible oil and 60% cake that for the latter will also boost milk production. The sesame oil will serve 380,000 people with a 5 ml per capita per day oil consumption and the cake 45,000 people with 200 ml per capita per day milk consumption.

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If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Somalia or the lead agency for the programme. The MPTF Office Portfolio Manager (or Country Director with Delegation of Authority) for this programme:

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