Project Factsheet
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Project ID:00075914Description:CHF Somalia WASH/OCHA-NGOs
Somalia Humanitarian Fund
Start Date *: 29 Jul 2010
Water and Sanitation
End Date*: 15 Nov 2011
Country: Somalia Project Status: Financially Closed
  Participating Organization:   NGO/OCHA - NGO implementation/OCHA

CHF-DMA-489-022 “Emergency response to IDPs and disaster-affected populations in South Somalia to have increased and sustained access to safe water, appropriate sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion” - 689,379$                                                                                            

Since January 2010 heavy fighting between TFG/AMISOM forces and insurgents in South and Central Somalia has increased, resulting in loss of livelihoods and subsequent increase in humanitarian needs especially in Lower Shabelle and Mogadishu regions where large displacements are reported. In particular, humanitarian needs of IDPs such as access to clean water, appropriate sanitation facilities, shelter and food are considerably increasing. Secondary displacements of IDPs are taking place in Ceelasha/Afgooye corridor because of landowner’s eviction following higher prices above normal offered by businessmen fleeing Mogadishu thus forcing more than 50,000 IDPs to relocate to other places where they don’t have easy access to sufficient quantity and quality of water. Some of them are also in lack of essential means (soap, water, storage containers) to achieve good levels of hygiene. This combined with limited knowledge of good hygiene practices and poor environmental sanitation due to the shortage of latrines for safe excreta disposal may contribute to the spread of WASH related diseases including AWD/Cholera outbreaks. This project aims to reduce the vulnerability of about 204,000 conflict-affected people (150,000 IDPs in Ceelasha and 45,000 in Xawa Cabdi areas of Afgooye corridor in Lower Shabelle region) through provision of safe water by extending the existing distribution network, operate and maintain piped connections to IDPs, payment of water fees for IDPs and construction of new latrines. WASH/VRCs committees will also be established/revived/streamlined and trained to strengthen their capacity to promote good hygiene practices and sanitation within their communities and manage the operation and maintenance of the developed/rehabilitated structures.                                         

CHF-DMA-489-023 “WASH Disaster Mitigation Project, Galkayo”–287,846$    

 The presence of waterborne diseases due to poor sanitation, hygiene, and lack of safe drinking water presents significant health risks for populations across Somalia. IDP settlements in Mudug region specifically are breeding grounds for vector-borne and communicable diseases. Among the settlements RI surveyed in 2009/2010 in Galkayo, a maximum of 60 percent of the population has access to safe drinking water, and in certain areas this figure is as low as 9 percent. In some cases, walking distance to water points which yield untreated water is 45 minutes, and queuing time is up to 90 minutes. Between 40 and 60 percent of individuals wash their hands (with water only) before eating. The impact on health and livelihoods from poor WASH in Mudug is severe. According to UNOCHA the five diseases having significant chance of outbreak are those most closely associated with poor WASH (bloody diarrhea, watery diarrhea, measles, malaria, and meningitis). Three of these five – watery diarrhea, measles, and malaria – were reported as the most prevalent illnesses in IDP camps in Galkayo. Moreover, while the average household earns US $19.50 - $45 per month, families must pay from US $3 to $8 for rented living space, and up to US $12 per month for water. The situation within IDP settlements is quickly deteriorating as drought, water shortages, and loss of livestock in rural areas of Central Region, combined with renewed violence in South Central Somalia, has motivated an influx of IDPs to the region.       

Water services in Galkayo are largely provided via a public-private partnership brokered by UNICEF in 2003 between the Puntland State Agency for Water, and Energy (PSAWEN) and the privately held Galkayo Water Company (GWC).  GWC maintains a 25-kilometer network of water points, but the system only has capacity to provide untreated water to residents of North Galkayo. Most IDPs in North and South Galkayo utilize a number of untreated off-network water sources including water tank trucks, kiosks, wells, and private vendors. These have been constructed or rehabilitated by NGOs, but they are not sufficient to meet needs. While international and local NGOs have undertaken latrine construction in some IDP settlements in and around Galkayo, the number of latrines is insufficient, and in no way have emergency Sphere Standards (50 persons per latrine) been met.                                    

Since establishing initial operations in Somalia in 2006, Relief International – United Kingdom (RI) has been implementing WASH, Nutrition, Food Security, Livelihoods, and Education sector programming across the whole of Puntland state and in Galmudug and Galgadud regions in South Central zone. In Mudug region specifically, the proposed program will link with RI’s ongoing interventions in Nutrition, Food Security, Livelihoods, and Education. Through current nutrition activities, RI has an established link with the Ministry of Health, and partners with village committees who are part of the advocacy and sustainability framework to educate and mobilize community members on key health and hygiene issues.          In consortium with ADRA Somalia, RI is implementing a 36 month education program which will increase participation in formal and non-formal quality basic education with particular focus on women and girls -- this project will include rehabilitation of WASH facilities in schools and dissemination of hygiene education. RI will build on the aforementioned interventions in Mudug region to provide a holistic response to the emergency affecting drought and conflict affected populations. RI believes an integrated, holistic intervention is required to meet the urgent and inter-connected food security, nutrition, and WASH needs in gap geographic areas (for example, WASH is considering one of the primary indicators for the poor Nutrition oulook in Somalia; therefore, the WASH intervention proposed herein will also address the root causes of the Nutrition crisis that RI is seking to address through its ongoing intervention).                                                                                                      

CHF-DMA-0489-024 “Water, sanitation and hygiene assistance for populations in South Mudug and Galgaduud” -822,775$               

Somalia has been mired in civil conflict since the downfall of Siad Barre in 1991. During the past years, Somalia has experienced a combination of extreme insecurity, recurring droughts and high food prices. Large numbers of water infrastructures have collapsed due to destruction in war and lack of maintenance. The available water sources have not covered the basic water demand in Central Somalia (Mudug and Galgaduud regions) in recent years. Water trucking is often a response to the scarcity of water in many villages in the region and are being conducted from the few boreholes that exists in the area. Water trucking is an expensive activity that is not sustainable                                                      

GSA, NorSom and Yme (G/N/Y) have worked in central Somalia since 2006, and have successfully implemented a number of projects. The water component of the projects has so far resulted in the rehabilitation of 6 deep wells (in Wargalo, Xingood, Ceel Guula, Matabaan and Godoon) and the drilling of 7 new deep wells (in Dawgaab, Gowlallo, Ceel Guula, Gawaan, Jilable, Qorqordheere and Wargalo). G/N/Y has also set up water systems in connection with the boreholes in almost all villages, with elevated water tanks, pipelines and water kiosks.  G/N/Y has done several other water and sanitation sub-projects.                               

With the intervention of G/N/Y the situation has improved and the fact that UN OCHA has intervened in the region has improved the access to clean water for some locations in the area. The region is though very vast and the population are scattered. It is still an urgent need in many localities in these regions for secure and clean water sources.

1. Bacadwayn: The conflicts and fighting in the Somali countryside usually erupts as a result of scarcity of resources of water and pasture land. The clan conflicts in Bacadwayn and Camaara, which has lately worsened, has its roots to water scarcity in both areas that has existed for many years and during drought times the conflicts escalate. GSA, NorSom and Yme (G/N/Y) have followed the situation, and Bacadwayn has long been a prioritized location for a new borehole. As a first step to alleviate the suffering in Bacadwayn and Camaara, G/N/Y plan peace and reconciliation work. G/N/Y proposes to drill a deep well in Bacadwayn through this project.

2. Hobyo: Hobyo is an ancient harbor city in the Mudug region of Somalia. Shallow wells are the most common sources of water for the inhabitants of Hobyo today. These wells are scattered inside the town, and the water quality is poor. Many of the wells dry up during the dry seasons. Poor quality pit latrines are common in Hobyo. To resolve the water problem in Hobyo G/N/Y proposes to build pipelines from the well in Gawaan to Hobyo. The well in Gawaan has been drilled at 137 meter altitude above sea level and the static water level in the well is 100 meter b.g.l. Preliminary investigations show that 90mm pipelines are required for this operation to be successfully implemented. This project has two phases. The first phase is to apply for direct piping distribution to the population in Hobyo town from CHF funding.  And second: Securing water sources for the communities with plenty of livestock inhabited between the Gawaan borehole and Hobyo that requires directly water sources.  G/N/Y is proposing this second phase with digging a number of shallow wells with funding from MFA and WFP to avoid any problem with the pipelines to Hobyo. Proposals for the second phase are under way to be submitted.

3. Qaidarre: Qaidarre village is a heavily populated village compared to the small villages in the area. Qaidarre community depends on 7 shallow wells mostly 30m deep for watering their livestock and themselves.  The shallow wells dry up in the harsh season where the community uses their own mechanism to cope with the drought by either immigrating to areas where they can meet their needs or by using camel mounted jerry cans and local made containers for harvesting water from distant places.  The shallow wells are unprotected and jeopardizing community’s health to chronic water-borne diseases like dysentery, acute watery diarrhea etc. The community in Qaidarre and its neighboring areas do not use underground cement lined water tank (Berkeds) for reasons they refer to hard formations of the area. Having studied magnitude of needs of the population to a permanent water source, G/N/Y therefore, recognized that it’s inevitable and demanding need for a borehole for Qaidarre community.


CHF-DMA-0489-025 “Increased and sustained access to life saving safe water and sanitation through rehabilitation of water and sanitation facilities, hygiene promotion and capacity development for vulnerable communities” – 400,000$

In Somalia, it is estimated that only 29% of the population have access to improved drinking water sources. Access to and use of latrines and sanitation facilities is also extremely low, with only 14% of the population estimated to access sanitation. Only a third of the population use any method to prevent contamination of the water when storing or handling. Infant mortality and malnutrition rates in Somalia are among the highest in the world and are associated with poor water and sanitation. As a result, cholera and acute watery diarrhea (AWD) are endemic and frequent outbreaks occur every year.

This intervention targets IDP and host communities whose health and nutritional status is severely impeded by frequent water borne illnesses and whose traditional coping mechanisms and livelihood systems are still recovering from the recent recurrent three years drought emergencies.  Around Bilcil area in Gaalkacyo, there are 3 boreholes all of which need to be improved or rehabilitated. 

Just before the 2010 Gu rainy season, Puntland like the rest of Somalia had experienced three years of consecutive rain failures resulting to severe drought and an acute water shortage crisis. Mudug with other south and central regions is still considered the epicentre of the drought, with over 70% of the population still being in acute food and livelihood crisis due to decimation of livestock herds resulting to destitution (FSNAU 2010). The Puntland regions of Mudug lacks permanent natural water sources and relies mainly on manmade water reservoirs. This is compounded by the fact that livestock keeping is the main source of economic livelihood and asset base for many communities in Puntland, with at least 90% of the population relying mainly on pastoralism. Close to 50% of all household income in Mudug are depended on a nomadic pastoral economy (FSNAU livelihood baseline profile 2000) while pastoralists comprise 80-90% of the Mudug population. During the last 3 years of drought and dry seasons, livestock losses experienced through death, poor animal body conditions as well as forgone opportunities for herds to calve and thus multiply have had a significant impact on household’s asset base. This is especially so for internally displaced households trying to restock.

Lack of access to safe water and sanitation increases the disease load (parasitic gut and eye infections, diarrhoeal diseases, skin diseases, water borne disease outbreaks) on the community from ingesting unclean water and also faecal contamination from poor human waste disposal.  With improved levels of personal and household hygiene, the survival rates of children under 5 years old is expected to improve. General improvement in community wellness is expected as physical injuries and mental pressure from searching for water over long distances will be reduced.

Water availability for livestock will contribute to safeguarding pastoralist assets as export of livestock fund a large part of import of foods in this area.                                                                                       


CHF-DMA-0489-026 “Provision of Appropriate Sanitation Assistance and Hygiene information to IDPs in Somalia” – 530,000$

The living conditions of IDPs in Mogadishu (Banadir), and Afgooye corridor (Lower Shabelle) are characterized by a general lack of access to clean and safe drinking water, limited access to appropriate sanitation (excreta disposal and waste management) facilities, health care, education, proper shelter, food, protection and security.

The findings of a rapid assessment conducted in April and May 2010, focusing largely on humanitarian access and needs, indicate that the most significant concerns in the settlements are related to dilapidated and often inadequate, and sometimes near total lack of sanitation facilities, along with poor hygiene practices. In addition, the waste management situation in and around the IDP settlements remains poor due to the lack of garbage collection and disposal systems. Vector controls, dust bins, garbage collection points, and landfills, are few and inadequate and where present, in need of replacement and rehabilitation.  Consequently, IDPs continue to live under poor hygiene conditions and practices which affects their overall nutritional standards as well as health.         

NRC has implemented Sanitation and Hygiene promotion activities in Mogadishu and along the Afgooye corridor since 2007. By ensuring a general improvement in the Hygiene and Sanitation standards the aim has been to improve the overall well being of the IDPs by reducing the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors.

NRC prioritizes the promotion of better hygiene practices and behavioural change, through concerted campaigns, visual messages, and provision of family/personal hygiene kits and settlement cleaning (Sanitation) kits. The training also aims at ensuring that the provided facilities are put to proper use and maintenance.                                                                                                     


CHF-DMA-0489-027 “Emergency provision of water and sanitation facilities for IDPs in south central Somalia” – 670,912$

The continuing and recently escalating conflict in Mogadishu is raising concerns in the wider humanitarian community. Since the beginning of this year, over 200,000 people have been forced into displacement and the main area of displacement is Afgooye Corridor. Continue displacement and new arrivals in the area have created huge demands for safe water, sanitation, food and other essential lifesavings items. Not only that the competition over limited resources/ services are causing tension and new conflict among the host community and IDPs. In the recent months, access to water in the corridor has decreased from an average of 14 l/p/d to 11.7 l/p/d. Needs for sanitation facilities are enormous.

Islamic Relief (IR) has been working in this area since 2006 and is well accepted by the local community and local authorities. IR is now intending to continue and expand its WASH activities in the corridor with CHF funding looking in to the gravity of the situation. This project is therefore critical to save lives of the IDPs and contribute in improving nutritional status of most vulnerable groups including children, women and elderly people.

Islamic Relief (IR) Somalia is currently implementing WASH activities mainly water piping and construction of water reservoirs in the 7 camps of Afgooye Corridors through ECHO funding. In order to address the health issues worsened by nutritional situation, Islamic Relief is operating its health intervention in the corridor through constructing 02 static clinics, 2 mobile clinics and a network of outreaches to address the health and most importantly Health & Hygiene Promotion in Afgoye. In order to promote, healthy behavior among school going children and camp committees, IR has also a good component of School Health Promotion and carrying out community based PHAST (participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation) activities in the camps through its 06 schools. In order to contribute to the nutritional status of the suffering IDP communities, IR provides monthly food basket (as per WFP standards) to some 600 families apart from its Qurbani and Ramadhan food distribution to approx. 2000 families in Afgoye corridor. Islamic Relief has technical competence in hardware component of WASH along with its own drilling rig and necessary equipments apart from its strengthened Hygiene Education and Promotion activities. 


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