Project Factsheet
Tools for » Enhancing the quality of preparedness in Nepal: making preparedness pay-off
Project ID:00120809Description:Enhancing the quality of prepa
Nepal Devt. Framework MPTF
Start Date *: 9 Apr 2020
Disaster Risk Reduction
End Date*: 31 Dec 2021
Country: Nepal Project Status: On Going
  Participating Organization:   Multiple

Nepal is at high risk from multiple natural hazards. Analysis of past disaster events (covering the period 1971-2018) shows the principle hazards include earthquakes, floods, landslides and fires. Nepal is generally categorized into three geographical zones – the Terai, Hill and Mountain areas. In April and May 2015 Nepal experienced two significant earthquakes of 7.8M and 7.3M which caused major loss of life and damage across central and western regions of the country.  More frequently, the annual monsoon season leads to a spike in landslides particularly in Hill and Mountain areas and flooding, particularly in the flat plains of the Terai. Some years are worse than others. In 2017 approximately 1.7 million people across the Terai were affected by monsoon floods including 169 deaths and 460,000 people temporarily displaced from their homes. Economic losses were significant - US$705 million. Areas of the Terai impacted by annual monsoon related hazards include some of the least developed areas of Nepal in in Province 2 and 5 and the humanitarian impact is compounded by pre-existing vulnerabilities. It is well documented that natural disasters impact people and communities in different ways. In every humanitarian crisis, women and girls are affected differently than men and boys, and vulnerabilities are often exacerbated by other factors such as age, disability, sexual orientation and gender identity, caste, ethnicity or religion. Pre-existing societal structures, social norms, discriminatory practices and gender roles create or contribute to heightened risks for some members of the community - such as children, persons with disabilities, sexual and gender minorities, people living with HIV/AIDS, adolescent girls, single women, female headed households, pregnant and lactating mothers, senior citizens, Dalit women, women from religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous women.

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) takes the lead at present within the Government of Nepal (GoN) in coordinating disaster preparedness and response. Through MoHA, particularly the National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC), international and national organizations coordinate response efforts. This is likely to shift with the formation of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Authority, which in line with the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act (2017) will sit under MOHA and pull together a cross-government approach to emergency preparedness and response.

Given the high likelihood of natural disasters in Nepal, the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) currently puts together Emergency Response Preparedness Plans (ERPs) for both earthquake and monsoon-related humanitarian impact to support the Government in their response efforts if required. These are the disasters with the most severe humanitarian implications. The Cluster system, adopted by the Government of Nepal placed leadership of sectoral response with Government line ministries, with global cluster leads as co-leads.  In Nepal, the co-leadership is mainly undertaken by the UN, with the exception of the Education Cluster which Save the Children co-leads along with UNICEF, and the Shelter Cluster, which is co-led by the International federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). This partnership approach provides a unique opportunity for the international humanitarian system to jointly-plan with and support Government’s preparedness and response.  

The monsoon ERP is revised every year using the lessons learned in the experience gained the previous year and incorporating new modalities, approaches and data available. The ERPs have focused on post-crisis response and now is the time to build on past experience to enable increased attention on key preparedness interventions, based on pre-crisis data. Many lessons have been learned from past responses and have been used to update and improve the ERPs, such as the Gender Equality profiles, conduct trainings for co-cluster leads and identify areas that require further capacity building, inter-agency collaboration and elaboration.  

While being in support of the Government’s response plans, until now Government and HCT ERPs have been separate, however the current indication from the Ministry of Home Affairs is, that as of 2020 they will be combined. It is vital, that cluster-co leads ensure a joined-up approach in support of the Government to enable this joint-planning process to be effective. 

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If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Nepal or the lead agency for the programme. The MPTF Office Portfolio Manager (or Country Director with Delegation of Authority) for this programme:

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