Project Factsheet
Tools for » HS-SOM-005-026 (Somalia) Protection, reintegration and Resettlement of IDPs
Project ID:00067545Description:HS-SOM-005-026 (Somalia)
UN Trust Fd for Human Security
Start Date *: 31 Dec 2008
UN Trust Fd for Human Security
End Date*: 31 Dec 2010
Country: Somalia Project Status: Financially Closed
  Participating Organization:   Multiple

From the 2009 Final Consolidated Report's Executive Summary:

This is the second interim report that reviews the activities and implementation of the Joint Programme for IDPs in Bossaso, Puntland State of Somalia. It builds upon the report that was submitted in 2008, and provides information on the results achieved in 2009, challenges encountered during implementation, and gives broad indications for programme implementation during 2010. Although the programme became effective in November 2007, the first disbursement of funds was not released until April 2008, and this led to a delay in implementation by some partners. Thus by June 2009, four months into the end of the programme, not all funds had been utilised. The programme management therefore sought and received a no cost extension till June 2010. This should allow for timely implementation and a smooth closure to the programme.

Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and the impact of state failure in Somalia has been profound, resulting in the collapse of national and political institutions, and the destruction of social and economic infrastructure, and in severe deprivation of basic social services. Through contributions from the UNHSTF, a Joint Programme was formulated to, amongst others, support the protection, reintegration and resettlement of IDPs in Bossaso, in the State of Puntland.

In an effort to try to address the needs of IDPs in Somalia, five UN agencies jointly developed a pilot programme for Bossaso IDPs, as implementing partners with one additional agency performing a non implementing role. These agencies are FAO (partnering with the Danish Refugee Council), UNICEF, UN HABITAT, UNHCR and UNDP. The programme goal and overall objectives are indicated below:

The Joint Programme for IDPs (JPIDPs) in Bossaso aims to improve human security and living standards, and provide durable solutions for reintegration and resettlement of IDPs and returnees in Somalia, with a particular focus on IDPs currently in Bossaso, North-East Somalia. The programme has three strategic objectives namely, better protection for IDPs in temporary and permanent shelters, improved living conditions in existing and temporary settlements and provision of durable solutions for livelihoods, resettlement and re-integration. The UN Agencies in partnership with their local implementing partners achieved a number of significant results and successes under each of these objectives. These are now enumerated below by strategic objective.

Under Strategic Objective 1, ‘enhanced protection for IDPs in temporary and permanent shelters’ and coordinated by UNHCR, significant results were achieved. In an assessment prior to implementation, SGBV was identified as one of the biggest protection challenge in the settlements. Thus activities on awareness raising and support actions taken on incidents of SGBV were undertaken. Several committees and task forces were established in the different settlements to monitor, document and refer cases arising for further support. In addition, a database of SGBV victims has been established. The physical layouts of the settlements were improved and coupled with installation of solar lights has enhanced the protection response. Latrines were appropriately located within the settlements thus further enhancing the protection of women and girls. In particular, UNHCR in partnership with a local NGO implemented a sanitary napkin production sub project that enabled the production and distribution of re-usable sanitary napkins to women and girls in the settlements. This afforded dignity to the beneficiaries, and also provided temporary employment and incomes to the IDP women who were employed following a vocational skills training component undertaken by FAO. Under the access to justice component, a partnership with the Puntland Legal Aid Center (PLAC) facilitated legal aid and representation to various inhabitants of the settlements including IDPs. A free legal clinic supported by a team of paralegals that helped refer legal cases from the traditional to the formal justice system helped enhance rights of vulnerable groups. This was complemented by providing training to the members of the police, law enforcement agencies and judiciary on their roles in protection of human rights. Furthermore, a code of conduct for judges, lawyers, prosecutors and registrars was drafted in consultation with civil society. It is envisaged that this will result in further enhancements of human rights of the population, particularly IDPs and other vulnerable groups. UNHCR also provided support to the Puntland Bar Association (PBA) which facilitated training of law enforcement personnel on human rights law. Under this programme, three lawyers were hired to advocate for the rights of IDPs, and over 50 legal cases against IDPs were followed up, amongst others.

Under strategic objective 2, ‘improvement of living conditions in the temporary settlements’ and coordinated by UNICEF, a number of significant results were also achieved. UN HABITAT spearheaded activities aimed at improving the physical layouts of the settlements through physical planning which allowed provision of sufficient living space for families, improvements in the road layouts and provision of firebreaks, amongst others. Transitional shelter kits were also provided to IDP households to shield them from the extreme vagaries of inclement weather. Latrines were also provided under this component, and to facilitate decision making and empowerment of the beneficiaries, several committees comprising of IDPs, authorities, land owners and the Un Partners were constituted to oversee roll out of all activities. As of December 2009, 5 settlements with an estimated 1,433 beneficiary households corresponding to 8,779 people had been upgraded. Under the WASH activities spearheaded by UNICEF, water provision and hygiene and sanitation promotion were enhanced. Training was provided to 50 water sources/ tank chlorinators as a strategy to provide safe water. Additional training was provided to selected community groups on hygiene and sanitation promotion through Children’s Hygiene and Sanitation Training (CHAST) and Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST). Through this process, 2,300 persons (1,380 adults and 920 children) were reached. Following these activities, it was observed that personal hygiene and environmental hygiene in the settlements improved as was evidenced through regular inspections. In addition, the incidences of acute watery diarrhoea also significantly reduced.

To further enhance access to clean water, UNICEF constructed 6 of 15 planned water kiosks. These water kiosks have management committees to oversee their operations and maintenance through collection of appropriate user fees. It is envisaged that these investments will lead to a significant reduction in the incidence of water borne diseases, whilst saving women from trekking long distances in search of safe water. In addition, a total of 122 latrines in 11 settlements were constructed, and community awareness and sensitization on their use undertaken in all settlements. The results following the construction of these latrines indicate that this has enhanced the protection of women due to closer proximity of the latrines and enhanced their security. This has also seen a reduction in the number of SGBV cases arising compared to when women were travelling further out to the bush.

Under this strategic objective, income generation opportunities were also provided to IDPs and members of the host community through a vocational skills training facilitated by FAO in partnership with the Danish Refugee Council (DRC). 174 beneficiaries (mostly women) were trained in various trades/skills that allowed them to earn incomes. On completion of their training, the beneficiaries were also provided with start up kits (capital in kind) to enable them continue improving their livelihoods. In addition, micro enterprise training was also provided to introduce business skills to the vocational skills training graduates.

Under strategic Objective 3 ‘durable solutions for livelihoods, resettlement and re-integration’, two components were planned. Local resettlement and integration solutions in Bossaso (coordinated by UN HABITAT) and resettlement in alternative locations (coordinated by FAO). Due to various reasons and primarily insecurity, the latter component did not take off. The reporting provided below will therefore focus on the former component.

Under provision of permanent shelter activities, land for construction of permanent shelters was acquired principally through two methods; namely through purchase of land by IDP families, and through land donations by private land owners. In both cases, committees comprising of various stakeholders were set up to oversee the process of acquisition of land, awareness creation, appeals for land as well as selection of the final beneficiaries. Following discussions with the local authorities, the beneficiaries included IDP families as well as host community families in a ratio of 80:20. Under this arrangement, it is therefore planned that out of the total of 450 permanent shelters to be constructed, 360 will benefit IDP families and 90 will benefit the urban poor from the host community. Three (3) local NGOs were contracted to undertake the construction of the permanent shelters under the close supervision of technical experts from UN HABITAT and officials from the local authority. In November, 252 units of housing were handed over to the beneficiaries. This comprised of 48 shelters on donated land and 204 shelters on purchased land. It is planned that the remaining shelters will be constructed and handed over within the remaining life of the programme.

Under local economic recovery, a consultant was hired to develop a strategy for local economic development in Bossaso. A two day multi stakeholder workshop was held in Bossaso in September during which priority interventions with the highest potential and impacts for reviving the local economy were identified. A draft strategy has been formulated and requires endorsement by all stakeholders.

At the consultative workshop with UN agencies, the business community, government counterparts and IDPs in Bossaso, the workshop clarified the concept of Local Economic Development and how it differs from re-integration strategies that were the focus of the Programme up to now. Closer consultations were held with the business community, through the Chamber of Commerce and select business representatives.

On the whole, Bossaso is fast developing into a transit point for trade and important investments are taking place in transport logistics and electricity sub-sectors. LED discussions identified opportunities for Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in these areas and hopefully, going forward, the Office of the Mayor and the Chamber of Commerce have been identified as good anchors to support the LED process.

The top priority sectors for a LED Programme, as identified by the stakeholders were (i) Livestock Production (ii) Trade – Imports and Exports of Commodities (iii) Services (Public Sector and Private Services) (iv) Fishing and Marine Products (v) Transport and Transit Trade Business (vi) Construction. Under the scenarios explored, private – public partnerships are examined, and the linkages to the macro economy further established. Recommendations on how to implement the strategy are captured in the draft.

A newly appointed Joint Programme Manager assumed the position in July, and this helped galvanise the activities and coordination of the programme. Following field missions to Bossaso, a number of reforms were undertaken including scheduling of monthly coordination meetings alternately in Bossaso and Nairobi, and the identification of focal points within agencies to support the coordination function. Strategies to communicate effectively were also developed through multi stakeholder workshops in Bossaso and Nairobi. It was noted that HIV/AIDS programming and gender issues were not adequately incorporated in the design and implementation of Phase I and these were identified as key issues for programming in a potential successor programme. In the absence of an overall harmonised monitoring and evaluation system for the programme, the UN agencies continued to use their own internal monitoring systems but the programme established a simple tracking tool, which captures activities, achievements, challenges and future plans on a monthly basis. The inputs to the tool are prepared at agency level, and consolidated by the joint programme manager and shared with all stakeholders in Bossaso, Garowe and Nairobi. This helped dispel the notion that no activities were being implemented, and also helped facilitate corrective action where challenges were noted.

Despite the achievements noted above, a number of challenges continued to hamper implementation of the programme. These include the often deteriorating security situation in Bossaso which limited access by international staff, the lack of public land for investments, the escalating number of IDPs which posed a strain on the meagre resources of government and the host community, the perceptions that IDPs are a security threat, the lack of a national IDP policy which constrained the implementation of an effective response by all partners. Additionally the delayed release of the second instalment of funds from the HSTF impacted on programme implementation for some agencies. Within the UN system, the lack of office premises in Bossaso affected the effective implementation by some partners.

Key plans are now underway to complete implementation of the programme in 2010. Joint work plans and budgets for 2010 were developed and shared. It is planned that these will be shared with government counterparts and local authorities in early 2010. A mission is also planned for the Country Representatives/Heads of Agencies of UN implementing partners to review field implementation and interact with government counterparts on the current and potential future programme. A no cost extension was sought by the programme, to extend the life of the current programme from October 2009 to June 2010. This will allow the timely completion of all scheduled activities by all implementing partners. It is also planned that a gender audit will be undertaken in early 2010 as terms of reference (TORs) for this activity have been developed and agreed upon by implementing partners. This audit will establish whether men and women, and boys and girls equally benefitted from the current programme while helping to inform the design of a potential successor programme. Towards the end of implementation, an evaluation will also be conducted on the overall programme to assess and establish preliminary outcomes and impacts.

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If you have questions about this programme you may wish to contact the RC office in Somalia or the lead agency for the programme.

The person with GATEWAY access rights to upload and maintain documents for the programme:

  • Fridah Karimi, Admin & Finance Assistant; Telephone: 254733636629; Email:; Skype: zarrathussttrra
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